Kalemegdan Park is the largest park and the most important historical monument in Belgrade. It is located on a 125-metre-high cliff, at the junction of the River Sava and the Danube. Its name is formed from the two words of Turkish origin: "Kale" meaning "fortress" and "megdan" meaning "battlefield".
The first works on arranging the town field Kalemegdan started in 1869, during 1891, the pathways were cut through and trees were planted; in 1903 the Little Staircase was built, based on the project of Jelisaveta Načić, the first woman architect in Serbia, while the Big Staircase, designed by architect Aleksandar Krstic, was built in 1928.
"Little Kalemegdan Park" occupies the area in the eastern section, which borders the urban section of Belgrade. Northern section of Little Kalemegdan Park is occupied by the Belgrade Zoo, opened in 1936. The art pavilion Cvijeta Zuzorić is also located here.
"Large Kalemegdan Park" occupies the southern corner of the fortress, with geometrical promenades, a military museum, a museum of forestry and hunting, and the Monument of Gratitude to France. Belgrade Fortress and Kalemegdan Park together represent a cultural monument of exceptional importance, the area where various sport, cultural and arts events take place, for all generations of Belgraders and numerous visitors of the city.
Tasmajdan Park colloquially Tašmajdan or just Taš (Tash) is a public park and the surrounding urban neighborhood of Belgrade with Tasmajdan and Little Tasmajdan. In 2010-2011 the entire park saw its largest reconstruction since its creation in 1958. Tašmajdan begins 600 meters southeast of Belgrade's designated center, Terazije. Within the Tašmajdan park a sports complex of Tašmajdan Sports Centre is located.
Centre administers several facilities located outside Tašmajdan, like "Pionir Hall" and "Ice Hall". However, swimming pools are located in the park. The outdoor swimming pool was built in 1959-1961. Its dimensions are 50 x 20 meters; its depth varies between 2.2 and 5.0 meters; its capacity is 3,500 m³ and 2,500 seats. Next to the big one, there is a small swimming pool for children. It was one of the venues for the 2006 Men's European Water Polo Championship and one of the venues of the 2009 Summer Universiade in July 2009, the event for which the pool was renovated. The indoor swimming-pool was built in 1964-1968. Its dimensions are 50 x 20 meters and depth is between 2.2 and 5.4 meters; its capacity is 3,700 m³. The swimming pool is surrounded with four diving boards - 1, 3, 5 and 10 meters high and 2,000 seats. It is equipped with underwater light. At -16 °C, water and air can be heated up to 28 °C.
Manjez park is a public park situated in the center of Belgrade nearby Flower's square. It derives its name from the French word manege (riding school) from the Royal Horse Guards which was housed at the site until 1931. The current park was built in 1931-33, according to the General Ordinance Plan of 1923. The designer was Aleksandar Krstić, a pioneer of modern landscape architecture. The park has an area of 26,457 sq m and a total of 253 trees of varying vitality. It accommodates several important sculptures, both commemorative and decorative. Park is often host for flowers exhibitions and fairs.
Karađorđev Park is a public park and an urban neighborhood of Belgrade. The park itself is located in Belgrade's municipality of Vračar, majority of what is today considered the neighborhood of Karađorđev Park is since 1957 located in the municipality of Savski Venac.
In 1979 Karađorđev Park was added to Historic Landmarks of Great Importance list, and it is protected by Republic of Serbia. Karađorđev Park is located on the southern slope of the Vračar hill, beginning at the Vračar plateau and the National Library of Serbia and ending at the highway interchange of Autokomanda. It is elongated in the north to south direction, bordered by the Boulevard of the Liberation on the west and the Nebojšina street on the east. Today, Karađorđev Park in the term of neighborhood covers larger area than the park itself. It is bordered by the neighborhoods of Vračar on the north, Neimar on the east and Autokomanda on the south, but the term spread on the area west and northwest of the park, so basically all the area along the Boulevard of Liberation from Autokomanda to the Slavija square is today called Karađorđev Park.
Hyde park is a park is situated in the municipality of Savski Venac, on the northern slopes of Topčider Hill. It consists of two parts: woodland with tracks for running, and another with appliancies for fitness and recreation. Total area is around 2 square kilometers and park is triangular in shape. Hyde Park was built in the 1930s. Nearby are Partizan Stadium, House of Flowers and Prokop station.
Banjica forest or Byford's Forest is a forest in Belgrade located in the Belgrade's municipality of Voždovac. It begins already less than 4 kilometers away from Terazije, downtown Belgrade. The forest is some 2 kilometers long and up to 300 meters wide and covers an area of 0.40 square kilometers. During the late 1980's, Timothy John Byford campaigned for Banjica forest to have special protection because of the large number of nightingales and other species of birds that nest in it. The wood is now an officially protected natural habitat and has been named Byford's Forest.
Most common tree species are pedunculate oak, red maple, silver maple and box elder, but there are many others as well. There are numerous wildflowers on the forest floor, including wood avens, violets, strawberries, garlic mustard, dead-nettles etc. Bird species are very diverse so because of them, Banjica forest is now a natural monument, protected by the state. 68 bird species live in the forest, 40 of which are resident birds, 16 are migratory birds and 12 are passing. The most common breeding birds are nightingale, blackcap, great tit, European magpie, hooded crow, blackbird, woodpigeon, great spotted woodpecker etc. Mammals include Eastern European hedgehog, moles, several species of shrews, various bats, the local brown subspecies of the red squirrel, wood mouse, yellow-necked mouse, least weasel etc. Institute for Nature Conservation of Serbia and the Belgrade City Secretariat for Environmental Protection accepted the initiative to name this protected area "Byford`s forest" in honor and gratitude of Timothy John Byford, the famous British director, screenwriter and actor, who has left an indelible mark not only in Serbian culture, but also in caring for its natural heritage. Mr. Timothy John Byford, a passionate amateur ornithologist and a connoisseur of birds, had studied the birds in Bajica forest for many years, and in the period from 1986 to 1989 collected data for about 70 species of birds . These data were used in the process of research and valuing this natural good, and later included in the Study on protection, which was drafted by the Institute, based on which this area became protected in 1993.
Topcider is a forest park close to downtown and one of the major locations for relaxation, picnics and fresh air for the citizens of Belgrade. Topčider Park begins five kilometers south of downtown Belgrade and extends west, east and south into the old Topčider woods which itself extend west into the park-wood of Košutnjak. In the upper parts, Košutnjak and Topčider forests grow together, while in the lower parts they are divided by the Topčider river and a railway passing through the river valley. Trees in park mostly London Plane (Platanus acerifolia) which are today among the oldest ones in Europe. The biggest and oldest specimen, protected by the state, is 34 meters high and the diameter of the deck is 55 meters, while the shade of its crown covers an area of 1,400 square meters. Some sources claim it was planted in 1834 when prince Milos Obrenovic ordered for a seedling to be planted in the lime kiln in front of the konak. Other, more reliable sources say the tree was planted in 1868, when 250 seedlings of Platanus were bought in Vienna, Austro-Hungary, for which a receipt still exist today.
Even older is the almost 180-year-old pear tree, nicknamed kruška topčiderka ("pear of Topčider") According to popular legend, it was planted by prince Milos Obrenovic a few years after the konak was finished. He wanted to redeem to his wife princess Ljubica because of his frequent infidelities and in front of the pear seedling swore loyalty. It still bears fruits, so attempts are being made to produce its seedling in the greenhouse. The pear is surrounded by five pedunculate oak, all of which are over 100 years old. Topčider was the first public park outside the central city area. Today it covers an area (with the Topčider and Košutnjak woods) of 3.46 km². Many other monuments are centered on the konak: the binjektaš stone ("hopping stone") which prince Miloš used to jump on a horse, the Museum of the First Serbian Uprising (in the konak itself), three public drinking fountains with an additional fourth one with lion's heads which was temporarily moved here, but restored in 1976 and returned to its original location in Terazije, and the stone obelisk erected in 1859, one of the first public monuments in Belgrade. A bronze monument to the Swiss doctor and philanthropist Archibald Reiss (by Marko Brežanin) was erected in 1931.
Kosutnjak is a park-forest very important for Belgrade. Kosutnjak is divided between in the municipalities of Čukarica (upper and central parts) and Rakovica (lower part). The name, Košutnjak, is derived from the medieval hunting forests of the Serbian nobility, meaning doe's breeder, as does used to live freely in the park until the World War I. Košutnjak is located 6 km southwest from the downtown Belgrade. In the lower parts, Košutnjak and Topčider forests grew together, while in the upper parts they are divided by the river Topčiderska reka and a railway passing through the river's valley (both Košutnjak and Topčider have their own, separate train stations).
Košutnjak is one of the most popular recreational places in Belgrade. Sports Center Košutnjak is one of the largest and most diverse in the city (stadiums, pools, etc.), while the park also has an auto-camp, modern settlements of Filmski Grad and Pionirski Grad, big studios of the national broadcaster Radio Television of Serbia, many popular restaurants and arranged paths crisscrossing the forest. Košutnjak gained a sort of historical notoriety as prince of Serbia, Mihailo Obrenović III was assassinated while walking in the park on June 10, 1868 and when Ivan Stambolić, Slobodan Milošević's political opponent, was abducted from the park on August 25, 2000 and later assassinated. Until World War II, the pheasants were abundant too and in this period Košutnjak was a healing destination for many city children.
Zvezdarska forest, forest park Zvezdara, is located on the Belgrade municipality with same name and is an important part of the ecosystem of the city. Zvezdarska forest is an attractive resort in near the center of town, which is used for relaxation, sport and recreation. In the past hill where Zvezdarska forest is today was named Veliki Vracar.
The tip of this hill is located at 254 meters N.V. and dominates the eastern part of Belgrade. Wooded part occupies approximately 145 hectares, of which 21 ha arranged as a park. The vegetation that grows in the urban environment of the city was of artificial origin and its average age is about 60 years. Today, the major part of the forest park consists of pure or mixed species of trees, such as acacia, black poplar and poplar Canadian, American ash, sycamore, white ash, red oak, black pine and white pine, as well as forest and ornamental shrubs. The primary function of forests is environmental improvement and optimization of environmental conditions in the city.
Cyril and Methodius Park
Cyril and Methodius Park is located near the center of city in area of Belgrade called Vukov Spomenik. It is named after Greek educators who brought Glagolitic alphabet, the first alphabet to be used for Slavonic manuscripts, to Serbian people. This park is among the oldest in the city. Its original purpose was to refine and enrich surrounding residential areas.
Park was built on a ground used for horse race tracks and during decades it was reconstructed for several times. Since it lies opposite to several universities, it is also called Studentski Park (Student's park). However, the most commonly used name is Kod Vuka and it refers to Vuk Karadžić whose statue stands at the west corner of the park and after whom is named underground station situated at this place and whole residential area around.
Jevremovac Botanical Garden
Jevremovac Botanical Garden is the botanical garden of the University of Belgrade. It is located in Belgrade's municipality of Stari Grad and is an administered by the University of Belgrade's Biology School. The botanical garden was founded in 1874 by the decree of the Ministry of Education of the Kingdom of Serbia, at the suggestion of Josif Pančić, famous botanist who also became its first manager. In 1889, king Milan Obrenović donated the estate, inherited from his grandfather Jevrem Obrenovic, to the Great School in Belgrade for the purpose of the construction of botanical garden, provided that it be named "Jevremovac" (Serbian for "Jevrem's garden"), after his grandfather. It exists to this day at the same location and under the same name and gave its name to the small surrounding neighborhood. The arboretum is open to visitors from May 1 to November 1.
After World War II, new Communist authorities suppressed public usage of word Jevremovac, so it was simply known as "botanical garden" until the 1990s when Jevremovac came into common usage again. Also, arboretum was very neglected for decades and only recently began its partial renovation and beautification but Jevremovac soon became popular again and today. The arboretum spreads over the area of 50,000 square meters of open space and includes over 250 species of trees and bushes including local, European and exotic plants. The total plant population now includes about 500 trees, bushes and herbaceous plants. Besides the open space, the arboretum also includes a greenhouse and the Institute of Botany's premises (administrative building, "herbarium", library, lecture hall and laboratories). Part of the arboretum is Japanese garden since May 18, 2004 created by Vera and Mihailo Grbic, landscape architects. The greenhouse, built in 1892, covers an area of 500 m². At the time of its construction, it was one of the biggest and most beautiful greenhouses in this part of Europe. Numerous tropical and sub-tropical plants are being nursed, including Canary Island Date Palm, European Fan Palm, and Peruvian cactus. The greenhouse is protected by the law for its architectural values. The "herbarium" accommodates rich collections of plants originating from the Balkan peninsula and the rest of Europe containing around 120,000 "herbarium" sheets and over 300,000 dried specimens. The library is one of the oldest and the largest in the area. Apart from 200 scientific and professional magazines it also accommodates over 6,000 books.
Ada Ciganlija colloquially shortened to Ada, is a river island that has artificially been turned into a peninsula, located in the Sava River's course through central Belgrade. To take advantage of its central location, over the past few decades, it was turned into an immensely popular recreational zone, most notable for its beaches and sports facilities, which, during summer seasons, can have over 100,000 visitors daily and up to 300,000 visitors over the weekend. Owing to this popularity, Ada Ciganlija has been commonly nicknamed "More Beograda" ("Belgrade's Sea").
Between Ada Ciganlija and Novi Beograd lies Ada Međica, a wholly insulated river island. Apart from the sport facilities, a 7 kilometer-long beach of Lake Sava has a closely supervised, fenced-off children's swimming area. Ada Ciganlija features a tall sports observation tower and bleachers on multiple levels which is its most prominent structure as well and one of very few permanent solid structures. One of those structures is the "Jezero" hotel at the entrance. The northern edge of the island is lined with attached floating barges, or houses on the water owned by many inhabitants of Belgrade as a weekend refuge given the peninsula's exceptionally quiet and green environment. In addition, many city dwellers come to enjoy fishing excursions, picnics and barbecues. From the beach, stunning views of central Belgrade can be seen, and sunsets are particularly beautiful when viewed from here.
Zemunski quay (Kej) is is located in Belgrade's municipality of Zemun alongside the right bank of the Danube. The promenade itself begins below the Gardoš hill, at the square of Veliki Trg and after 2, 5 kilometers it continues into the municipality of Novi Beograd. On the east it borders the neighborhoods of Donji Grad and Retenzija and on the south the neighborhood of Ušće in Novi Beograd.
The promenade continues around Ušće and makes one continuous pedestrian path next to the neighborhoods of Staro Sajmište and Savski Nasip, alongside the left bank of the Sava. Zemunski Kej is the main Zemun's landing area for numerous boats. Also, as the bank (and thus the quay too) follows the line of the nearby Great War Island, it is the beginning point of the pontoon bridge which seasonally connects the island with the mainland. Lots of area in the neighborhood are pedestrian paths or green areas used for recreation, including a large seasonal amusement park, and commercial facilities. One of the largest hotels in Belgrade, "Hotel Jugoslavija" is located in the neighborhood, but it has been closed since the NATO bombing of Serbia in 1999 when it was badly damaged. It was opened partially in 2007 as the largest casino in Belgrade. The bank in front of the hotel is a location of many restaurants and clubs on barges, one of the focal points of the vibrant Belgrade's nightlife.
Great War Island
Great War Island is a river island located at the confluence of Sava and Danube rivers. Though uninhabited, the island is part of the Belgrade City proper, and belongs to the city municipality of Zemun. The island is relatively close to the banks, at the closest it is just 200 meters away from both Novi Beograd and Kalemegdan. On the south, halfway between the Great War Island and Ušće is the remnant of Little War Island. The Great War Island is generally triangular in shape and covers an area of 2.11 km2. It is low, for the most part marshy and often flooded by the Danube. One of Belgrade's beaches, Lido, is located on the northern tip of the island. You can cross river to come to island with small boats which are driven by locals and in the summer by pontoon bridge which connecting Zemun quay and Lido beach.
The main physical feature on the island is the canal of Veliki Galijaš. In time, the canal was cut off from the Danube and effectively turned into a lake, with an area of 0.24 km2 and the major natural bird and fish spawning area on the island. However, during drought years the lake drains completely causing damage to the closed eco-system centered around it. Currently some two-thirds of the island are used as a nature reserve for 196 bird species, many of which are endangered. Because of the sedimentation, occasional drainage and removal of the silt from the northern tip of the island is necessary, as otherwise it would make a land connection to the bank of the Danube. Plant life on the island includes the typical marshy flora, like reed, yellow flag or rush, but also trees like black poplar, ash tree, White Elm, elderberry, hawthorn and even some rare conifers. In 2002, the island was declared a natural fish spawning area and declared practically the only part of the City of Belgrade where building of facilities like hotels, motels or restaurants is not allowed. In August 2007, digging of a 300 meter long canal which reconnected Veliki Galijaš with the Danube also began to prevent the seasonal drying of the lake.
Avala is located 16 kilometers south-east of downtown Belgrade. From Avala is provided a great panoramic view of Belgrade, Vojvodina and Šumadija, as the surrounding area on all sides is mostly lowlands. It stands at 511 meters above sea level, which means that it enters the mountain category just by 11 meters.
In 1965, a 202 m high Avala TV Tower was constructed, one of the tallest structures in the Balkans, by the architects Uglješa Bogunovic, Slobodan Janjic and M. Krstic. It had a restaurant-look out on 120 meters. The tower was destroyed during the NATO bombing of Serbia in 1999. Its total reconstruction began in 2006 and was officially opened at a ceremony on 21 April 2010. The new tower is almost the exact replica of the destroyed one, including the unique three-feet base. Despite being officially protected for almost 150 years, it was only in 2007 that preservation plans for the mountain were made. Protected areas of Avala spread over 489,13 hectares.
Aside from rich animal life, the Avala is known for its diverse plant life, despite not being a tall mountain. There are over 600 plant species living on the mountain. Some of them are protected by the law as natural rarities, like certain types of laburnum or box tree. The area is also abundant in medical herbs. High woods mostly consist of durmast oak, Turkey oak, hornbeam, beech, linden, black pine, black locust and other trees.
Memorial Park Jajinci
Memorial park Jajinci is located on the territory of Belgrade municipality Voždovac, on the 11th kilometer on the way to the Аvala mountain. It was built in the location of the military shooting range used by the Armed Forces of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and which during the World War II became the place of the terrible suffering of the innocent population on the territory of the occupied Serbia.
From 1941 to 1944, the population of Serbia and Belgrade, through the entire system of prisons, concentration camps and execution places, was included in this image of collective suffering. Immediately after the German occupying troops entered Belgrade on April 12, 1941, began reprisals against population. The establishment of concentration camps in "Topovske šume" in Autokomanda, in Banjica in barracks of 18th Infantry Regiment, the concentration camp Sajmište in the facilities of the former Fair Complex on the left bank of the Sava river and "Milišića ciglana" in Zvezdara, marked the destiny of Belgrade in a very special way.