Belgrade Fortress consists of the old citadel (Upper and Lower Town) and Kalemegdan Park (Large and Little Kalemegdan) on the confluence of the River Sava and Danube. Belgrade Fortress is located on top of the 125.5-meter high ending ridge of the Šumadija geological bar. The cliff-like ridge overlooks the Great War Island and the confluence of the Sava river into the Danube, and makes one of the most beautiful natural lookouts in Belgrade. Belgrade Fortress was declared a Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1979, and is protected by the Republic of Serbia.
Kalemegdan is the most popular park because of the park's numerous winding walking paths, shaded benches, picturesque fountains, statues, historical architecture and scenic river views. Belgrade Fortress is known for its kilometers-long tunnels, underground corridors and catacombs, which are still largely unexplored.
Belgrade Fortress is generally divided into four sections:
Donji Grad ("Lower Town") that occupies the slope towards the riversides, from the top spot where "The Victor" is. Between the lowest section and the Danube is Kula Nebojša ("Impregnable, Fearless, or Daredevil Tower"), which has been turned into a museum of the Greek revolutionary Rigas Feraios, who was strangled by the Turks in this tower and his corpse thrown into the Danube. This area frequently suffers from flooding, and Kula Nebojša suffered extensive damage during the major floods of 2006. The Orthodox churches of Ružica (former Austrian gun depot) and Sveta Petka are also located in this area, as is the Belgrade Planetarium.
Gornji Grad ("Upper Town") is the upper section of fortress and it has been turned into a park, with beautiful promenades and the statue of "The Victor" (Pobednik), the so-called "Roman well" (Rimski bunar), actually built by the Austrians, the Popular Observatory, the türbe (tomb) of Damad Ali Pasha, tennis and basketball courts, etc.
Mali Kalemegdanski park ("Little Kalemegdan Park") that occupies the area in the eastern section, which borders the urban section of Belgrade. The northern section of Little Kalemegdan Park is occupied by the Belgrade zoo, opened in 1936. The art pavilion Cvijeta Zuzorić is also located here.
Veliki Kalemegdanski park ("Large Kalemegdan Park"); it occupies the southern corner of fortress, with geometrical promenades, the Military Museum, the Museum of Forestry and Hunting, and the Monument of Gratitude to France.
Knez Mihailova Street
Kneza Mihaila Street or Prince Michael Street is the main pedestrian and shopping zone in Belgrade and one of the oldest and most valuable landmarks of the city. Thousands of people stroll along the one kilometer long street every day. The Street is the shortest path from Terazije to Kalemegdan park and fortress.
The Street was named after Mihailo Obrenović III, Prince of Serbia in 1870. Street features a number of buildings and mansions built during the late 1870s. In it was 1979 included on the list of Spatial Cultural-Historical Units of Great Importance, and as such is protected by the Republic of Serbia.
The street follows the central grid layout of the Roman city of Singidunum. During Ottoman occupation, there were gardens, drinking-fountains and mosques along the street. In the middle of the 19th century, the upper part of the street bordered the garden of Knez Aleksandar Karađorđević. After the implementation of the 1867 city of Belgrade regulation plan by Emilijan Josimovic, the street soon gained its current look and architecture. Houses were built there by the most influential and wealthiest families of the Serbian society, most of them merchants.
Kosancicev Venac is the oldest section of Belgrade outside the walls of the Kalemegdan fortress.
House of the National Assembly
House of the National Assembly is located in very heart of Belgrade down town near Terazije square and Nikola Pasic square. In the House of the National Assembly in Belgrade is seat for the unicameral National Assembly of Serbia which is supreme legislative power. The national assembly convenes in the House of the National Assembly building, located on Nikola Pašić Square in downtown Belgrade.
Nikola Pašić Square
Nikola Pašić Square is one of the central town squares named in 1992 after Nikola Pašić who served as mayor of Belgrade, prime minister of Serbia and prime minister of Yugoslavia. The square was built during the 1950s as part of a massive Terazije reorganization project named at first as Marx and Engels Square in honor of the famous communist theoreticians. The dominant architectural features in the square are the massive, Socialist Classicism Dom sindikata (Trade Union Hall) building and one of the Belgrade's largest fountains.
The pedestrian section of the square is used for various public events, most notably open flower, honey, and book sales. On occasion, artificial ice rink or beach volley sand courts are put up as seasonal attractions in winter and summer, respectively. Bezistan is a shopping area which makes indoor passage which connects the square and Terazije. Originally, it was a location of Hotel "Pariz", which was built in the 1870s and demolished in 1948 during the reconstruction of Terazije. Passage has been protected by the state as a "cultural property" and being nicknamed by the architects as the "belly button of Belgrade".
Andricev Venac is encompassing a corner of the Kralja Milana and Kneza Milosa Street, two main streets in downtown Belgrade while the rest is bound by the street-promenade of the same name. It is some 400 meters away from Terazije, Belgrade's downtown. The central area is a pedestrian zone, a short paved promenade which connects Pionirski Park and Kralja Milana Street. Andricev Venac is named after Yugoslav Nobel laureate in literature, Ivo Andrić. The promenade has benches, artistic candelabra, lime trees Green Crimean linden, Tilia euchlora Koch, which are under the state protection, and an artificial, marble step-like stream originating from a fountain and a monument to Ivo Andrić. The entire area has been given an artistic character as several galleries ("Galerija Ozone") and bookstores are located along the eastern side of the promenade. The entire western side of the promenade is occupied by the building of the Presidency of Serbia, also known as Novi Dvor (New Palace), the official seat of the president of the republic.
Stari Dvor was the royal residence of the Obrenović dynasty. Today it houses the City Assembly of Belgrade. The palace is located on the corner of Kralja Milana and Dragoslava Jovanovića streets in Belgrade, Serbia, opposite Novi Dvor (New Palace). The palace was built between 1882 and 1884, according to the design of Aleksandar Bugarski, in the style of academism of the 19th century, with intention to surpass all existing residences of the Serbian rulers.
The Old Palace has almost square foundation of 40x40 m. Its design is classical, with central windowed inner hall. There used to be a greenhouse and richly ornamented oaken stairs added later, and leading onto the first floor (they were designed by a famous architect Jovan Ilkić). Those stairs were destroyed in World War I. Around this central space with columns and galleries there were other rooms of the Palace, the most important of them being the great hall for receptions and balls and the dining room. As parts of the Palace there were also a nicely arranged library and the Palace chapel, which faced the garden. The whole interior equipment of the Palace has been mostly imported from Vienna. The facade which faces the garden is most richly made, having projecting balconies which provided closer contact with the garden. The most characteristic motifs of this facade are the caryatids at the first-floor level which, above the balconies at each end of the facade support richly made tympanums of the ending windows. The caryatid are repeated on the facade facing the Kralja Milana street, and the line of Doric columns in beneath them. The Doric columns also appear on the facade against the garden, between richly decorated windows. The other two facades are somewhat simpler. The basement and the corners of the building are rustically designed. The balconies and the attic are balustraded. The three corners of the building used to have proportional domes.
Novi Dvor meaning New Palace, was a royal residence of the Karađorđević dynasty of Serbia and later Kingdom of Yugoslavia. From 1991 it is the official seat of the President of Serbia. The palace is located on Andrićev Venac in Belgrade, Serbia, opposite Stari Dvor (Old Palace).
Built as a new palace for King Peter I Karađorđević, the foundation stone of Novi Dvor was laid down on 14 September 1911. Construction was delayed, first by the First Balkan War, then by the First World War - when the building site took direct hits from Austro-Hungarian gunfire - and the palace was not completed until 1922. Peter I died in 1921 and it was his son, King Alexander I of Yugoslavia who was the first tenant, from 1922. Novi Dvor was the official palace of Yugoslavia until Alexander's assassination in Marseilles in 1934, after which Novi Dvor was converted into a museum and art gallery.
After the Second World War, the reconstruction and new use of Novi dvor and Stari dvor served the broader objective of transforming the former royal palace complex into the administrative seat of the republic. To connect the former palace complex with the National Assembly building, the fence was removed, the Palace Guard building torn down and the palace garden turned into a public park (Pionirski).
St. Mark’s Church
St. Mark's Church is a Serbian Orthodox church located in the Tasmajdan park in Belgrade, Serbia, near the Parliament of Serbia. It was built between 1931 and 1940 in the Serbo-Byzantine style by plans designed by the brothers architects Petar and Branko Krstic. It is one of the largest churches in Serbia.
The Gračanica Monastery was used as a model for architect plans. The World War II interrupted the full completion of the church. Only the construction work was finished. Divine service took place in the new church during the war and after it until November 14, 1948 in the adapted entrace of the church. On that date the church was consecrated by Serbian Patriarch Gavrilo V and the church opened for divine service. There were plans to decorate the whole interior with frescoes. The external walls are in two colors of natural materials in the Serbo-Byzantine style. The church bell tower is a part of the church itself on the west side. The original, wooden church, was built in the days of Belgrade Metropolitan Petar Jovanović dating to 1835. The main donator was merchant Lazar Panca. Dedicated to St. Mark, it was built within an existing cemetery. It was a rectangular building whose exterior surface area was 11.5 by 21 m and whose interior was 7.75 by 17.46 m. Work on this church was supervised by architect Nikola Živković. In 1870, the church was the parish seat of Terazije with 312 homes and Palilula with 318 homes. It was destroyed during World War I by Austrian troops, then reconstructed in 1917. There is a small Russian Orthodox church next to St. Mark's.
Terazije is the central square of Belgrade. Terazije is probably more related to the word "reservoir" connected to the ancient Roman aqueduct which existed before the Ottoman times. Perhaps terazije is connected to a water distribution mechanism which existed here which lifted and distributed water further into the city. There is an underground natural and/or man made underground river in this area. "Water Balances" known as "su terazisi", were tower-like structures maintaining water pressure when conveying water to neighbourhoods at a high-level. Varying from 3 to 10 m in height, they had a cistern at the summit from which the water flowed into distribution pipes.
Despite the fact that many Belgraders consider the Republic Square or Kalemegdan to be the city's centerpiece areas, Terazije is Belgrade's designated center. When street numbers are assigned to the streets of Belgrade, numeration begins from the part of the street closest to Terazije. Terazije Terrace is a sloping park coming down from the 117 meters high Terazije Ridge (on top of which Terazije is built) to the right bank of the Sava river. Geographically, it is a part of the larger, 300 meter long Sava Ridge. The top of the area is an excellent natural lookout point to the Sava river valley, Novi Beograd and further into the Srem region.
Hotel Moskva is a four star hotel in Belgrade, one of the oldest currently operating in Serbia, located on the Terazije square. Hotel Moskva is one of the most recognizable Belgrade landmarks, a valuable architectural monument placed under governmental protection since 1968. Originally operating as a 36-room inn within the multipurpose Palace Rossiya, whose almost 3-year construction and January 1908 opening represented a major investment of the Russian Empire in the Kingdom of Serbia economy, Hotel Moskva eventually expanded its facilities to take up the entire palace. Today, hotel has 132 rooms, 40 of them duplex rooms and 6 apartments, the hotel's two restaurants, one with international and other with national cuisine, are one of the rare Belgrade spots that also serve vegetarian meals. The hotel also has a snack bar, the famous old-fashioned café and a summer garden that's very popular not only with guests, but with Belgraders too.
In the late 1890s, in the Kingdom of Serbia ruled by the Obrenović royal house, specifically King Alexander I, the empty plot of land at Terazije where Hotel Moskva is located today, was sold cheaply by the Belgrade municipal authorities to local merchant Boško Tadić. By the early 1900s, together with his wife Stana, Tadić completed a simple one-story family house on the plot. At the time, the Terazije plateau around the house was lined with large chestnut trees that provided nice shade over a small open market where market sellers from Zemun, across the Sava river in neighbouring Austria-Hungary, as well as peasants from the Belgrade outskirts came to sell their produce. In essence, the open market was an upper town outpost of the larger Zeleni Venac open market located several hundred meters down nearby Prizrenska Street. It had over 36 million visitors in the past 100 years, including celebrities like Serbian Field-marshals Živojin Mišić and Petar Bojović, inventors Mikhail Kalashnikov and Albert Einstein, sportists Anatoly Karpov, Garry Kasparov, Carl Lewis, actors like Robert De Niro, Kirk Douglas, Milla Jovovich, Jack Nicholson, Michael Douglas, producers like Alfred Hitchcock, Roman Polanski, Miloš Forman politicians like Nikola Pašić, Rajiv Gandhi, Yasser Arafat, Indira Gandhi, Muammar al-Gaddafi, Richard Nixon and others, singers and tenors like Luciano Pavarotti, Yves Montand, Ray Charles, Bob Geldof writers like Maxim Gorky, Orson Welles, Rebecca West, Jean-Paul Sartre and many others. The pictures of the famous visitors are in a hotel hallways.
Palace Albanija is located on Terazije square and represents highest reference point between Terazije and Slavija square. Albanija was finished and opened in 1940, it holds the distinction of being the first skyscraper built in Southeast Europe and highest building in Belgrade for a long time. It was designed by Miladin Prljević and Đorđe Lazarević, based on the 1938 project by Branko Bon and Milan Grakalić. The origin of its name is traced back to the period before it was built, since a kafana named Albanija previously occupied the same spot. On October 20, 1944, Yugoslav flag with red star placed on Palace Albanija declared that Belgrade was liberated from the Nazis by the Red Army and Yugoslav Partisan forces.
Prince Mihailo Monument
Monument of Prince Mihailo Obrenovic is located in the main Republic Square in Belgrade and was erected in 1882. It was the first public monument with representation of an equestrian figure of a ruler in Serbia. The author of the monument is Italian sculptor Enrico Pazzi. Reliefs on the monument were performed according to the drawings of architect Konstantin Jovanović. The monument was declared a Monument of Culture of Great Importance in 1979 and it is protected by Republic of Serbia.
Monument is made of bronze is composed of three parts, the plinth, the pedestal, and the equestrian statue. The bronze figure represent the prince on the horse, the Serbian liberator, liberator from the Turks, whose outstretched arm pointing to yet oppressed areas. The raised arm gesture with outstretched index finger comes from militaristic corporeal rhetoric dating back to Roman tradition particular used later from the French neoclassical art. For Prince’s Mihailo such a gesture actually meant victory in the field of diplomacy, not on the battlefield. Prince holds the reins with the left hand, gesture which symbolizes the ability of the ruler to control and manage. The pedestal is of the oval type with a relief frieze. The entire pedestal with reliefs was set at a high rectangular plinth, so that the monument with its location and appearance could have dominated the space, and which in the assessment had an important visual and symbolic role in the elevation of the royal personality. The emblem of Obrenović dynasty is on the front south side of the plinth, similar to the emblem on the Duke’s tomb in the Orthodox Cathedral. Three large bronze garlands were on the lateral sides, on which were inscribed in gilt letters the names of cities liberated in 1867: Belgrade, Kladovo, Soko, Smederevo, Šabac and Užice. On the back, north side is the text: “To Prince Mihailo Obrenovic III. Greatful Serbia“.
National Theatre in Belgrade
National Theatre in Belgrade is located on Republic Square. Built back in 1868, the National Theatre, following the fate of its own people and the country, went through different phases of the architectural and artistic development, surviving as a symbol of Serbian culture, tradition and spirituality. Today, under its roof, there are three artistic ensembles - Opera, Drama and Ballet.
In 1868, the Serbian National Theatre from Novi Sad (then the capital of Serbian culture in Austria-Hungary) performed in Belgrade (then the capital of the Principality of Serbia). Prince Michael, impressed by the performances he experienced, invited Jovan Djordjevic (the founder of the Novi Sad Serbian National Theatre) to found a similar institution in Serbia. Having accepted, Jovan Djordjevic came to Belgrade with half of his company of actors and founded the National Theatre in Belgrade, seven years after having founded the Novi Sad theatre. The National Theatre Belgrade was built in 1869 according to the design of Aleksandar Bugarski, the most productive architect of Belgrade in the 19th century. The decision to construct a special building for the theatre was made by Knez Mihailo Obrenović. The building was a typical theatre building at the time and was particularly reminiscent of La Scala, Milan, with regard to its Renaissance conception and the decorative finish. Later, reconstructions completely changed the original appearance. The heavy reconstruction was made in 1986 when the theatre regained the 1922 look and an annex was built towards Braće Jugovića Street. Beside theatrical purposes, the hall has been used for charity balls and concerts during the 19th century. The Great Constitutional Assembly adopted the famous 1888 Constitution in this building.
National Museum of Serbia
The National Museum of Serbia is the largest and oldest museum in Serbia and former Yugoslavia. It is located in the central zone of Belgrade on the Republic Square. The museum was established on May 10, 1844. Since it was founded, its collection has grown to over 400,000 objects, including many foreign masterpieces. Currently, the museum is closed for renovation.
The author of the design was an architect Miladin Prljevic. The museum building was used by Mortgage Bank. The first renovation of bank building was done by architect Dobroslav Pavlovic in 1950 but the overall reconstruction of the building was made 1965-1966 by architects Alexander Deroko, Petar Anagnosti and Zoran Petrovic. The central dome was restored and the central tract with offices and work-spaces was lifted. The originally main and monumental three-way staircase entrance from the Republic Square received an internal character while the other entrance from Vasina Street became the main entrance to the Museum which is connected directly to the other hall.
The National Museum of Serbia is a representative public building, monumental in size and volume, as well as its external shape and style. That is especially visible in the entrance area with twin columns and magnificent dome. All the facades characterized with Neo-renaissance ornaments. Interior has rich decoration done by famous artists of the time: Andrea Domenico (also known as a painter of decorative wall painting that is in the interior of the building of the Old Palace), Franz Valdman and Bora Kovacevic. Because of its architectural and cultural, urban and historical value building of the National Museum of Serbia is established for the cultural heritage monument of great importance for the Republic of Serbia.
Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Serbian Academy of Science and Arts building has been decorating Knez Mihailova Street for almost one century bringing the spirit of French decorations and Art Nouveau in the architecture of Belgrade. This building is probably the most beautiful building in Belgrade. The sketches, proposals and designs for the construction of this magnificent building were created in 1886. The building was officially opened on 24 February 1952, when the Academy permanently moved in into the building. In 1967, Samojlov did the design for the adaptation of the gallery on the corner of Knez Mihailova and Vuka Karadžića Street. Taking into consideration the undeniable values and the importance the building was designated as a cultural monument in 1992.
The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts is a national academy and the most prominent academic institution in Serbia, founded in 1841. The Serbian Royal Academy of Sciences was the successor to the Serbian Learned Society with which it merged in 1892 and accepted its members as its own either regular or honorary members. Serbian Learned Society on 29 July 1864 took over the place and functions of the Society of Serbian Scholarship, the first learned society in the Principality of Serbia, founded on 7 November 1841. Today, the Academy directs a small number of scientific research projects which are realized in cooperation with other Serbian scientific institutions and through international cooperation.
St. Michael’s Cathedral
The Cathedral Church of St. Michael the Archangel is a Serbian Orthodox Christian church situated in the old part of the city, at intersection of Kralja Petra and Kneza Sime Markovica Streets. It is commonly known as just Saborna crkva (The Cathedral) among the city residents. Cathedral Church of St. Michael the Archangel was declared Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1979 and it is protected by Republic of Serbia.
The Cathedral Church in Belgrade with its architecture, art work and rich treasury is an impressive cultural monument. It is an invaluable historical monument of the Serbian sector of Belgrade from in first half of the 19th Century, which formed in area around the Cathedral Church, thus becoming its religious, administrative and cultural centre. During the times when new social and political structures were slowly emerging, the Cathedral Church became a central support in the independence fight from Turkish centralism to the final freedom from Ottoman rule.
The Belgrade Zoo is named Garden of Good Hope and it is located in Kalemegdan Park. The Belgrade Zoological Garden was officially opened on 12 July 1936, by Belgrade mayor Vlada Ilić and is one of the oldest zoos in Europe. The zoo was initially no larger than 3.5 hectares, but was expanded to about 14 hectares. During the Second World War, the zoo was bombed twice, in 1941 and 1944, heavily damaging the infrastructure and killing most of the animals. The zoo lost seven hectares of land.
Nowadays the zoo covers an area of about 7 hectares, and has 2,000 animals representing about 270 different species. The zoo holds domestic as well as exotic wild animals. Its present look is contributed by many built facilities, new drinking-fountains, wooden Sculpture Gallery, and the nursery for young animals – Baby Zoo. The zoo has the biggest pride of white lions in the world, many tropical birds and birds of prey. Some of the best-known animals are Muja (world's oldest alligator), Gabi (a dog which saved a guard from a jaguar) and Sammy chimpanzee who escaped from the zoo twice.
Nebojsa Tower is one of the most famous tower in Belgrade Fortress. It is located in the Lower Town at the entrance to the former Danube port. The tower is named negation of the verb to fear, which would mean that the tower is not afraid of any enemies and it was impregnable. The original names of the tower were White and Temišvarska tower to its present name received only in the XVII century. At the beginning of XXI century Belgrade authorities reached an approximate agreement with the Greek authorities on the renovation of the tower and its opening to visitors with the help of funds provided to the Greeks. Work on rebuilding the unsealed in June 2009 and the year ended in May 2010. The tower is open to the public, the exhibition space on four floors, the first of which is dedicated to Riga from Fere.
Nebojsa Tower has a base of regular octagon with thick walls. It has four floors and ground floor (five storeys) with a total height of 22m. On each side of the floors are placed cannon openings where the crew is able to target the attackers from the river and from the mainland. The tower is one of the typical artillery multi-storey towers, which were built at that time in almost all the fortified cities of that era. Nebojsa Tower was built around 1460 by Hungarians to protect the approach to the pier and the Danube itself against Turkish attacks. Turks during the conquest of Belgrade in 1521 managed to penetrate the lower city only when the artillery destroyed the Nebojša Tower. It was often under attack invading artillery, so many times destroyed and rebuilt.
Skadarlija is a vintage street, less than 400 metres long, considered the main bohemian quarter of Belgrade. Skadarlija begins right below the Republic Square and stretches along the short, winding Skadarska Street. This is location that must be visited if you are in Belgrade. It brings spirit of old days in which artists of all kinds were finding their inspiration in restaurants of Skadarlija.
The present Skadarlija is a remarkable Belgrade tourist attraction. It includes well-known restaurants, bars, hotels, art galleries, antique and souvenir shops, and the Sebilj fountain. Groups playing Serbian brass or traditional urban music and actors dressed in traditional Serb costumes perform down the street. Unlike other similar and popular places in Belgrade that are considered posh, Skadarlija is known as a place visited by young couples and entire families with children. Restaurants offer the typical national cuisine, most notably the roštilj (grilled meat) with pivo (beer). Since 1993, the official opening of the summer season in Skadarlija (restaurants are open the entire year) has been marked by rising a "bohemian flag" in front of the Zlatni bokal restaurant. The ceremony is always attended by celebrities, including popular and opera singers, actors, and artists.
Manak's House is a building on the outskirts of the former Savamala, on the corner of Kraljevića Marka and Gavrila Principa Street. The house was designed for the Turkish Aga Khan and his harem. It was declared a cultural monument by the Cultural Heritage Preservation Institute of Belgrade.
The house was later bought by the Greek Manojlo Manak, who in the late 19th century had a bakery and a tavern on the ground-floor, and residence on the second floor. The house reflects the construction methods and dwelling culture of its time. It was built in "bondruk" style, consisting of timber framing filled in with brickwork, in this case mud brick. It has a basement, ground floor, mezzanine and first floor. The layout of its rooms is the result of regulation and uneven terrain.
By the mid-1950's, the building was dilapidated and scheduled for demolition. However, its destruction was prevented: between 1964 and 1968, the Cultural Heritage Preservation Institute of Belgrade performed the necessary restoration and conservation work to revive it. Under the supervision of architect Zoran Jakovljevic, the foundations were reinforced and the wooden "bondruk" structures were replaced. The layout and the size of rooms were retained. Interior details were also preserved. The porch was completely reconstructed. The reconstruction was inspired by similar architecture in Belgrade, Grocka and Sopot. The structure now hosts the ethnographic collection of Hristifor Crnilovic (1886-1963), a painter and collector of objects of folk heritage and art. The building was given to the city of Belgrade and now serves as an integral part of the Ethnographic Museum.
Cvetni trg or Flower Square is located in on one of Belgrade's main streets, Kralja Milana and Njegoševa and Svetozara Markovića Street. Cvetni Trg is located right across the Yugoslav drama theatre and Manjež park. In the early 2000s the section of Njegoševa street north of Cvetni trg was closed for traffic, paved with stone and turned into a series of small stair-like plateaus, used as patios for local coffee shops, thus enlarging the area of the square.
Flowers Square is fully reconstructed in 2016 and now has a present look with white stone plateau and benches for pleasant rest below Linden shade. Small flower shops were kept, but only two, and one Tourist info office is opened on this place. In this reconstruction the monument of famous Serbian writer Branislav Pekic was placed on the Square.
Church of Saint Sava
The Church of Saint Sava is a Serbian Orthodox church located on the Vračar plateau. It is one of the largest Orthodox churches in the world and ranks among the largest church buildings in the world. The church is dedicated to Saint Sava, the founder of the Serbian Orthodox Church and an important figure in medieval Serbia. On this location St. Sava's remains were burned in 1595 by Ottoman Grand Vizier Sinan Pasha. From its location, it dominates Belgrade's city landscape, and is perhaps the most monumental building in the city. The building of the church structure is being financed exclusively by donations.
The church is centrally planned, having the form of a Greek Cross. It has a large central dome supported on four pendentives and buttressed on each side by a lower semi-dome over an apse. Beneath each semi-dome is a gallery supported on an arcade. The dome is 70 m high, while the main gold plated cross is another 12 m high, which gives a total of 82 m to the height Cathedral of Saint Sava. The peak is 134 m above the sea level (64 m above the Sava river), therefore the church holds a dominant position in Belgrade's city landscape and is visible from all approaches to the city. The church is 91 m long from east to west, and 81 m from north to south. Its domes have 18 more gold-plated crosses of various sizes, while the bell towers have 49 bells of the Austrian Bell Foundry Grassmayr. It has a surface area of 3,500 m2 on the ground floor, with three galleries of 1,500 m2 on the first level, and a 120 m2 gallery on the second level. The Cathedral can receive 10,000 faithful at any one time. The choir gallery seats 800 singers. The basement contains a crypt, the treasury of Saint Sava, and the grave church of Saint Lazar the Hieromartyr, with a total surface of 1,800 m2. The facade is in white marble and granite and, when finished, the inner decorations will be of mosaics. The central dome will contain a mosaic of Christ Pantocrator.
Branko's bridge is the second-largest bridge (after Gazela) of Belgrade connecting the city center with New Belgrade across Sava river. The first part of bridge was built in 1957. Today it consists of two separate constructions with three lanes in each direction. The second part of bridge construction was finished in 1979. Bridge is replacing the former chain-stayed King Aleksandar I Bridge that was opened on December 16, 1934 and blown up in bombing attack on 1941. The bridge actually uses lower parts of the former bridge's pylons as outer constraints for its two secondary spans. It is 450 m long, made as continuous steel box girder, with central span of 261 m and side spans of 81.5 m each. It is crossed by nearly 90,000 vehicles daily, and traffic congestion's are frequent.
German company MAN is behind the original project of the bridge. Belgrade-based "Mostprojekt" company executed the project of doubling the bridge capacity in the 1970s. Head of the project team was Danilo Dragojevic. The name of the bridge is unofficial, and seems to owe it to a bizarre chain of events. Its official name during the communist rule was "Brotherhood and unity bridge" but that name never caught up. It was called "bridge in Branko's street", named after Branko Radičević, Serbian romanticist poet, or "Savski most" (Sava bridge). When another writer, Branko Copic, committed a suicide by jumping from the bridge in 1984, the current name Branko's bridge started circulating and eventually caught up. It is still not clear after which Branko it was named.
The Ada Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge over the Sava river. The bridge crosses the tip of Ada Ciganlija island, connecting the municipalities of Čukarica and New Belgrade. Construction began in 2008, and the bridge opened on 1 January 2012. Access roads were completed in 2013.
The competition for the preliminary design of the bridge was held in 2004. Twelve companies submitted bids, with the winning design by the Slovenian company Ponting. The bridge designers were the architects Viktor Markelj and Peter Gabrijelcic. The winning conceptual design was unanimously selected by the jury which was chaired by Nikola Hajdin, President of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts and the architect of the New Railroad Bridge. The Belgrade Association of Architects also endorsed the project, assessing it as contemporary and relevant to the future skyline of Belgrade.
The bridge is a cable-stayed design with a single pylon. The foundation for the pylon is a circular diaphragm wall with 113 bored piles. The main span is constructed from 8,600 tons of bridge construction steel, supported by 80 stay cables, and is counterbalanced by a concrete back span of 200 m. The bridge is designed to significantly reduce traffic passing through the city centre and the older Gazela Bridge. It is planned to be part of the future Belgrade Inner City Semi-Ring Road. It will have three road lanes and a tram (light rail) track in each direction.
Staro Sajmište was the site of the World War II Sajmište concentration camp (1941–1944). Staro Sajmište is located in the Novi Beograd's Block 17, between the street of Zemunski put, the Mihajlo Pupin boulevard and the Sava river. After the WWII the settlement was totally neglected for years and gradually started falling apart. Former fair buildings were awarded to some prominent artists (painters and sculptors) as their ateliers. Finally on July 9, 1987, Belgrade City Assembly decided to make Staro Sajmište a cultural site, thereby protecting it from real-estate expansion development. On April 21, 1995, a monument in remembrance of Sajmište victims was unveiled along Sava, one day ahead of the 50-year anniversary of Hitler admitting defeat on April 22, 1945.
After the April war of 1941 when Germany and its allies occupied and partitioned the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, entire Syrmia region (including the left bank of the Sava) became part of the Independent State of Croatia where they set the Ustaše regime. Nazi secret police, Gestapo, took over Sajmište. They encircled it with several rings of barbed wire turning it into what they referred to as "collection center" - a euphemism for a prison. Until May 1942 Germans used Sajmište concentration camp to mostly kill off Jews from Belgrade and other parts of Serbia. From April 1942 onwards, Serbian prisoners were transported in from Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška concentration camps run by ISC Croatian Ustaše. Partisans captured throughout Serbia were also sent to Sajmište. Detainees were also sent in from other parts of Yugoslavia, especially Serbs after major German offensives on briefly liberated territories. Executions of captured prisoners lasted as long as the camp existed. Among others, prisoners included Serbian women, children and the elderly from Kozara region, entire Jewish families from Belgrade and other cities, Romani families, as well as entire Serbian populations of different Syrmian villages. November 1946 report released by Yugoslav State Commission for Crimes of Occupiers and their Collaborators claims that close to 100,000 prisoners came through Sajmište's gates. It is estimated that around 48,000 people perished inside the camp.
Palace of Serbia
The Palace of Serbia is used by the government of Serbia and currently houses several cabinet level ministries and agencies. The technical name of the building is Savezno izvršno veće 1 (SIV 1) as it was used by the Federal Executive Council of Yugoslavia. Later, it was informally known as the Palata Federacije (Palace of the Federation) before given its present name in 2006. The building was constructed in the mixed stripped down classicist (the main structure) and modernist (the glass domed great hall with front entrance) architectural styles. Common misconception about it being in socialist realism/Stalinist style is due to lack of such buildings in Belgrade in general. While it is the most monumental building of the early socialist period, unfamiliar with Soviet construction of the time, yet familiar with the term used for it, come to this obviously erroneous conclusion. Its H-shaped base covers an area of approximately 65,000 m², thus making it the largest building in Serbia by area covered. It has 744 offices, about 30 m² each, 13 conference rooms, six salons, three large halls and two garages.
The building was constructed according to the system of the reinforced concrete skeleton structure, filled with bricks. The facade of the building is covered with the white Brač marble, whereas the openings were made of white metal. Starting from 1961, when the First Conference of the Non-aligned countries was held, the Palace of the Federation received many foreign statesmen and delegations. The first session of the Federal Executive Council in the new building was held no later than 29 April 1961. With its architectural values, the Palace of the Federal Executive Council marked the period of creating the recognizable image of Novi Beograd and Belgrade in general. The aesthetic and visual values of the building are emphasized with the special park design of the surrounding, with the accesses, parking lot, garages and the fountain, as well as with the general position of the building, which enables its incessant overview. Within the design of the immediate surroundings of the palace, and for the purpose of the visiting of the members of high delegations, the construction of the Park of Friendship was started, as one of the most specific green areas in the entire world. The Palace of the Federal Executive Council, along with the works of Fine and Applied Arts, which constitute its integral part, was designated the cultural monument in 2013.
Gardos is located on the slopes of the hill of the same name, with its tower and preserved old architecture it is the major historical landmark of Zemun. For the most part, the neighborhood preserved its old looks, with narrow, still mostly cobble stoned streets unsuitable for modern vehicles, and individual residential houses. As a curiosity, almost half of the neighborhood is occupied by Zemun's largest graveyard. Gardos Tower has been renovated several years ago and today is seat for gallery and on top of the tower is viewpoint with beautiful and wide view on Zemun and Belgrade.
The major attraction in the area is the Kula Sibinjanin Janka (The tower of Janos Hunyadi) or the Millennium tower, also known as the Tower on the hill or simply the Gardos tower. It was built and officially opened on August 20, 1896 to celebrate a thousand years of Hungarian settlement in the Pannonian plain. It was part of the massive construction effort which included buildings in Budapest as well as four millennium towers on four directions of the world. The tower was built on the ruins of the medieval fortress on Gardos hill which barely survived today (only angular towers and parts of the defending wall). There is a theater called "Teatar Gardoš" located south of the hill, on the Masaryk square in Donji Grad. The main cultural event is Leto na Gardošu (Summer in Gardoš), a series of mostly outdoors theatrical performances, held in July and August each year.